Ad Valorem Taxation
Taxation that’s based on the assessed value of the subject
of the tax.
Approved Assessing Unit
An assessing unit that’s completed a property revaluation
and has been certified by the State Board of Real Property Services.
Certification gives the assessing unit some additional options in
its property tax system – e.g., the option to use dual tax
Article 7 Tax Certiorari Proceeding
A proceeding in New York Supreme Court where the taxpayer may appeal
a decision by
the Board of Assessment Review (BAR).
Article 78 Proceeding
A proceeding in New York Supreme Court where the taxpayer may seek
review of a decision by
SCAR, or of a decision by BAR not to ratify a stipulated assessment
that the taxpayer and
assessor have agreed upon without a formal challenge.
The assessor’s determination of the value of real property,
before exemptions are applied but
after the uniform percentage of value is applied.
A city, town, county, or village that assesses real property for
tax purposes. Or, a “consolidated
assessing unit,” comprised of two or more cities or towns.
There are more than 1,100 assessing
units in New York. Note: Some properties are located in more than
one assessing unit and will therefore be assessed more than once.
A valuation of real property for tax purposes. See also “assessed
An elected or appointed official who assesses real property in an
assessing unit for tax purposes.
An assessing unit might instead have a Board of Assessors.
Board of Assessment Review (BAR)
A board of 3-5 persons in an assessing unit, appointed by the local
government, that hears and
decides complaints filed by taxpayers seeking to lower their assessments.
A property valuation technique generally used for special purpose
and utility properties. It
determines a property’s value by adding the cost to replace
structures on the land to the market
value of the land.
By law, relief from the requirement to pay property taxes, for instance
because the property
houses a religious institution.
Final Assessment Roll
The assessment roll that each assessing unit produces after BAR
challenges have been
completed and changes made to the tentative assessment roll. It
lists the “final” assessment for
each parcel of real property in the assessing unit, though taxpayers
may appeal BAR
See “market value.”
A property valuation technique generally used for properties like
apartment buildings, stores, or
factories. It determines a property’s value by estimating
the amount of income it would produce
Level of Assessment
See “uniform percentage of value.”
A property valuation technique generally used for residential, vacant,
and farm properties. It
determines a property’s value by comparing it to recent sales
of similar properties.
The price for which a piece of property would sell in an “arms-length”
transaction (where the
seller’s under no compulsion to sell, and the buyer’s
under no compulsion to buy). Also known as “full value.”
Primarily, real estate and any structures attached to it.
Residential Assessment Ratio (RAR)
The median ratio in a list of ratios of assessments to sales prices
for an assessing unit. Assessors
may use the RAR to help measure assessment equity. For some assessment
taxpayer may also choose to use the RAR to identify the level at
which his property should be
Revaluation or Reassessment
A systematic review of the assessments in an assessing unit.
Small Claims Assessment Review (SCAR)
A proceeding within the New York Supreme Court system that a taxpayer
may pursue to appeal
Special Assessing Unit
New York City or Nassau County.
State Board of Real Property Services
A 5-member board appointed by the Governor that oversees the administration
of real property
assessments in New York. For instance, the Board works on the state
equalization rate, helps
assessing units administer property assessments, and trains and
State Equalization Rate
The percentage of full value at which properties in an assessing
unit are assessed, as determined
by the State Board of Real Property Services. The state uses it
to ensure that properties are
equitably taxed throughout the state. Sometimes, this will be the
same as the assessing unit’s
uniform percentage of value, or level of assessment.
For property taxes, the total amount of money that an assessing
unit must raise from the property tax.
The rate at which a property assessment is taxed. For instance,
$50 for every $1,000 of assessed value. The assessing unit determines
the tax rate by dividing the tax levy by the total taxable assessed
values of all properties in the assessing unit. So, if the total
assessment of properties decreases one year, but the assessing unit
still needs to raise the same amount of money through property taxes,
the assessing unit may raise the tax rate for that year.
Taxable Status Date
The date on which a property’s exemption status is determined.
For most assessing units, it’s
March 1st of the year the final assessment roll is filed.
Tentative Assessment Roll
The tentative assessment roll is a list of information published
every year by the assessor for
each local assessing unit. It contains information about each parcel
of property, including the assessed value of each property assessed,
the estimated full value of each property assessed, and the level
of assessment used in the assessing unit.
Uniform Percentage of Value
The percentage of full value (market value) at which an assessing
unit assesses real property. So,
once a property’s market value has been determined, the market
value is multiplied by the
uniform percentage of value to arrive at the property’s actual
assessment. To ensure that taxes
are fair, each property in the assessing unit must be assessed at
the same rate. If the uniform
percentage of value is 100%, a property’s assessment will
be the same as its market value. If the
uniform percentage of value is 50%, the property’s assessment
will be half of its market value. Also called the “level of
Determining the value of a piece of property.
The date at which real property is valued for tax purposes. For
most assessing units, it’s July 1st
of the year before the assessment roll is filed. So, if the final
assessment roll is filed on July 1,
2013, the assessments be based on valuations from July 1, 2012.